The Province of Nueva Vizcaya, which was named after the people living in the coast of Mar de Vizcaine in Spain, was a part of the vast “Territorio de Missionares” of the Spanish controlled
government of Cagayan. The territory covered the eastern half of Northern Luzon, from Nueva Ecija to Aparri, including the Batanes Islands.
On May 24, 1839, Governor-General Luis Lardizabal, upon the advice of the Alcalde Mayor of Cagayan, issued an order making Nueva Vizcaya a separate politico-military province. The King of Spain through a royal decree approved the order on April 10, 1841. Governor Pedro Menchaca was the first appointed politico-military governor of the new province. However, the Spanish sovereignty ceased upon the arrival of the Philippine revolutionary forces in Bayombong on August 1898.
The province had its first taste of civil government in 1902 when the Philippine Commission organized it. The present territory of Nueva Vizcaya was a result of the changes emanating from the formal creation of the province of Isabela in May 1865, wherein a great portion of its northern territory was ceded to the newly born province. The organization of the Ifugao province in 1908 further reduced the area of Nueva Vizcaya. The survey executed by the Bureau of Lands and the enactment of the Administrative Code in 1914 and 1917 respectively retrenched the province’s scope. In addition, the Republic Act No. 6394 in 1971 made Quirino a regular province further reducing the territory of the province.
Since its birth as a province, its history could still be reflected from the culture and customs of the early settlers, i.e., Ilongots, Igorots, Ifugaos, Isinais and the Gaddangs. The influx of civilization and the infusion of modern technology to the life stream of the province induced many settlers from adjacent provinces primarily the Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Pangasinenses and the Kapampangans to migrate here.
Today, Nueva Vizcaya stands strong and is proudly transforming into a fast developing province with its fifteen municipalities, viz: Alfonso Castañeda, Ambaguio, Aritao, Bagabag, Bambang, Bayombong, Diadi, Dupax del Sur, Dupax del Norte, Kayapa, Kasibu, Quezon, Solano, Sta. Fe and Villaverde.